The treatment options for liver cancer include surgery, ablation, embolization, targeted therapy, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
Surgery is an option for people with an early stage of liver cancer. The surgeon may remove the whole liver (transplant) or only the part that has cancer (hepatectomy). If the whole liver is removed, it's replaced with healthy liver tissue from a donor.
As much as 80 percent of the liver may be removed. The surgeon leaves behind normal liver tissue. The remaining healthy tissue takes over the work of the liver. Also, the liver can regrow the missing part. The new cells grow over several weeks.
Ablation is a procedure that uses high-frequency electric current to heat and destroy the cancer cells in the liver. They may be used for people waiting for a liver transplant, or for people who can't have surgery or a liver transplant. Surgery to remove the tumor may not be possible because of cirrhosis or other conditions that cause poor liver function, the location of the tumor within the liver, or other health problems.
Embolization, or chemoembolization, is a procedure which involves the injection of substances to try to block or reduce the blood flow to cancer cells in the liver. It is typically used for people who can't have surgery or a liver transplant. The doctor inserts a tiny catheter into an artery in your leg and moves the catheter into the hepatic artery.
For embolization, the doctor injects tiny sponges or other particles into the catheter. The particles block the flow of blood through the artery. Depending on the type of particles used, the blockage may be temporary or permanent.
Without blood flow from the hepatic artery, the tumor dies. Although the hepatic artery is blocked, healthy liver tissue continues to receive blood from the hepatic portal vein.
For chemoembolization, the doctor injects an anticancer drug (chemotherapy) into the artery before injecting the tiny particles that block blood flow. Without blood flow, the drug stays in the liver longer.
People with liver cancer who can't have surgery or a liver transplant may receive a drug called targeted therapy. Sorafenib (Nexavar) tablets were the first targeted therapy approved for liver cancer.
Targeted therapy slows the growth of liver tumors. It also reduces their blood supply. The drug is taken by mouth.
Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. It may be an option for a few people who can't have surgery. Sometimes it's used with other approaches. Radiation therapy also may be used to help relieve pain from liver cancer that has spread to the bones.
Chemotherapy, the use of drugs to kill cancer cells, is sometimes used to treat liver cancer. Drugs are usually given by vein (intravenous). The drugs enter the bloodstream and travel throughout your body.