There is no clear indicator as to what causes esophageal cancer. Esophageal cancer occurs when cells in your esophagus develop errors, known as mutations, in their DNA. These mutations make cells grow and divide out of control. These abnormal cells accumulate, forming a tumor in the esophagus that can grow to invade nearby areas of the body such as the aorta or spine. They can also metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body that may not be near the esophagus, such as the liver or lungs.
While the cause of esophageal cancer is uncertain, there are various factors that can increase your risk of developing the disease. These risk factors can include:
To reduce your risk of developing esophageal cancer: